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Normal Uric Acid Level Chart Uric acid level is measured using a simple blood test where the results will be available in 1 to 2 days. Every lab has their own, slightly different, set range of values that are considered normal and there are differences between men, women and children. Commonly, the values are This chart shows normal uric acid levels from a sample of 10 labs. As you can see, the ranges vary from lab to lab. So even if the numbers were useful, you would be caught in a lottery depending on where your blood was tested. But you can see they are meaningless Keeping uric acid levels within a certain range can reduce pain, joint damage, and complications from gout. Summary Uric acid is a waste product that can damage joints and tissue if it builds up. Get the best uric acid level chart to really help you control gout now. Back to Contents. Uric Acid Level Ranges. Uric acid level ranges are the most important part of gout diagnosis and treatment. Yet everyone gets them wrong. Stop looking at meaningless high, low, or normal levels. You need to know dangerous and safe urate levels
Uric acid levels can vary based on sex. Normal values are 1.5 to 6.0 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dL) for women and 2.5 to 7.0 mg/dL for men. However, the values may vary based on the lab doing the.. Uric acid is an end product of the purine metabolism. Increased Uric acid concentrations e.g. refer to gout or renal diseases
Sometimes, the levels of uric acid become too high and increase your risk of developing kidney stones and gout. In this condition, you'd better follow a low-purine diet. What to Eat on a Low Purine Diet 1. Dairy. You can include dairy products in your diet without having to worry too much about increasing your uric acid levels SI units Conversion Calculator. Convert Uric Acid level to mmol/L, µmol/L, mg/dL, mg/100mL, mg%, mg/L, µg/mL. Clinical laboratory units online conversion from conventional or traditional units to Si units. Table of conversion factors for Uric Acid unit conversion to mmol/L, µmol/L, mg/dL, mg/100mL, mg%, mg/L, µg/mL It should be remembered that food is usually responsible for only ca. 30% of the uric acid content in the blood serum. Diet is very important to those who wish to lower their uric acid, yet other considerations should not be overlooked. Extremely physical exertion or traumatic injuries may contribute to the occurrence of gout Gout is a painful form of arthritis that occurs when high levels of uric acid in the blood cause crystals to form and accumulate in and around a joint. Uric acid is produced when the body breaks down a chemical called purine. Purine occurs naturally in your body, but it's also found in certain foods. Uric acid is eliminated from the body in urine HIGHEST IN PURINES (400 mg. uric acid/100 g and higher) Foods (alphabetically) Total Purines in mg uric acid/100 g (Average) Min Max Nutrition Density in mg/MJ Fish, sardines in oil 480 399 560 519.5 Liver, Calf's 460 837.5 Mushroom, flat, edible Boletus, dried 488 932.8 Neck sweet bread, Calf's 1260 3012.9 Ox liver 554.
The normal levels of uric acid for females is fixed at 2.4 to 6.0 mg/dL. For males, the levels range in between 3.4 to 7.0 mg/dL. Uric Acid levels higher than 7.0 milligrams per deciliter (dL) cause painful forms of arthritis known as gout. Importance of Controlling Levels of Uric Acid Uric Acid Level. Testing for the target serum uric acid level of less than 6 mg/dL may be performed as early as two weeks after initiating ULORIC therapy. Recommended Prophylaxis for Gout Flares. Gout flares may occur after initiation of ULORIC due to changing serum uric acid levels resulting in mobilization of urate from tissue deposits. Flare. A uric acid level is obtained via a blood or urine sample. The blood sample is obtained by a health-care professional from a vein in your hand or arm. Unless otherwise instructed by your physician, do not eat or drink for at least four hours before a uric acid blood test. To test the level of uric acid in your urine, a 24-hour urine sample is. Immediate treatment to lower uric acid levels can ease the symptoms of an ongoing gout attack. Regular medication and certain lifestyle changes can lower the levels of uric acid in the body, reducing the risk of future gout attacks. If hyperuricemia does not cause signs or symptoms (asymptomatic hyperuricemia), the treatment recommendations are. An increased serum uric acid level (> 0.3 mmol/L) may be suggestive of hypovolemic hyponatremia. Decreased uric acid levels (<0.24 mmol/L) are commonly seen in patients with SIADH. Suspected or known hypertensive disorder - hyperuricemia is typically defined as serum uric acid levels (SUA) >6.5 mg/dL or >7 mg/dL in men and >6 mg/dL in women
SUPPORT. Visit support portal; Submit a support request; Contact Us. The Health & Wellness Center 703-354-7336; Address: 4501 Ford Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22302 Hours of Operation: Customer Support: +1 703-354-7336 Monday - Friday: 7 a.m. - 12 a.m. ES Normal Uric acid levels are 2.4-6.0 mg/dL (female) and 3.4-7.0 mg/dL (male). Normal values will vary from laboratory to laboratory. Also important to blood uric acid levels are purines. Purines are nitrogen-containing compounds, which are made inside the cells of your body (endogenous), or come from outside of your body, from foods containing. A uric acid buildup can sometimes lead to gout, which causes very painful symptoms. Learn about eight natural ways to lower uric acid levels in this article Low uric acid levels may indicate severe liver disease, low protein diet, heavy metal poisoning, Wilson's disease or some type of cancer. Many drugs can affect uric acid levels. For example, raised levels are caused by thiazide diuretics, theophylline and low dose aspirin; low levels are caused by high dose aspirin, corticosteroids and allopurinol . Free UK delivery on eligible orders
This uric acid levels chart extends the mini uric acid table in the right-hand sidebar on every page. See the uric acid scales by safe, OK, warning, and danger. Uric Acid Level Ranges Uric acid levels numbers are key to controlling gout. So why does everyone get uric acid ranges wrong? See the exact numbers backed by real science The final breakdown product of purine catabolism in humans is uric acid. The liver and intestinal mucosa produce most of the uric acid. The kidneys eliminate two thirds of the uric acid, with the GI tract excreting the other one third. Uric has a pK a of 5.75 and 10.3 and thus is a weak acid. The ionized forms of uric acid, urates, are present.
Uric acid levels in the blood usually remain within a normal range, but they sometimes rise, producing hyperuricemia. The excess uric acid may then collect as crystals in body tissues, especially the kidneys and joints, causing kidney stones and gout — a type of arthritis An extended list of fish and seafood, including organs, with their purine content is presented below. The uric acid content is what the corresponding purine amount in the food would convert to in the body. Purine in Fresh and Processed Fish. Table 1: Total purines and uric acid content in fresh and processed fish The increased uric acid level is also one of the significant reasons produced by alcohol. The brewery liquor and beer are the richest sources of purine, and now the researchers have proved that people who drink beer daily face gout attacks or joint pain and inflammation, so try to avoid drinking alcohol All meat products have purine. Relative to the recommended limits for purine level in diet, purine in meat cuts ranges from low to moderate level.The exception is liver, regardless of the animal source, which has the highest purine content of all meat parts and organs.. Below are the major meat types (beef, chicken, mutton and port), meat cuts and organs and their purine content Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C 5 H 4 N 4 O 3.It forms ions and salts known as urates and acid urates, such as ammonium acid urate.Uric acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a normal component of urine. High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other.
Uric acid levels can also increase when you eat too many high-purine foods or take medicines like diuretics, aspirin, and niacin. Then crystals of uric acid can form and collect in the joints. This causes painful inflammation. This condition is called gout. It can also lead to kidney stones When uric acid is present in large quantities in the bloodstream it can result in arthritis or gout. When it builds up in the fluids of your joints, it causes inflammation and pain, primarily affecting the toes and ankles. Some foods contain a lot of purines that increase your level of uric acid in the bloodstream
The actual reference range of serum uric acid has been assessed according to its variations among healthy individuals. i.e. those without clinical evidence of gout. By this approach, serum uric acid values between 3.5 and 7.2 mg/dL in adult males and postmenopausal women and between 2.6 and 6.0 mg/d Uric Acid is a waste product created during normal breakdown of Purines. Purines are nitrogen containing compounds which are made inside cells of body that is endogenous or from foods containing purine that is exogenous. Purine breaks down into Uric Acid. Increased level of Uric Acid from excess purines accumulates in tissues and form crystals
Individuals with gout should avoid high-purine. Gout is a medical condition defined by the accumulation of uric acid that is formed by purines in foods. Purines are proteins found in certain foods and too many of them, along with other risk factors, can cause gout. Purines are found mostly in high-protein and high-fat foods To monitor uric acid levels during treatment for gout and evaluation of tissue destruction, liver damage, renal function, and monitor the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Patient Preparation There are no food, fluid, activity, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction Purines are chemical compounds that form uric acid when metabolized. Find out which types of high-purine foods you should avoid to lower your risk of gout, kidney stones, and other health risks Advice & help with stomachache diarrhoea vomitting elevated uric acid levels (diat chart) Dr. univ. Med. Peter PEER general practitioner additional subject geriatrics. phone +43 5287 86180 Opening hours. duty for the weekend: Sa 13th + Su 14th March from 10-11 and 4-5 pm; having symptoms - ask for a testing and please call for an appointment!!!. If uric acid levels are too high, the first preferred treatment is a change of eating habits. If uric acid levels remain high over a long period of time and the change of diet makes no positive difference, medication will need to be used. This will either reduce the production of uric acid in the body or increase the elimination of uric acid.
nl values: Uric acid (S)= 1.5 - 8 mg/dL (89.22 - 475.84 umol/L) CF: 59.48 CF= conversion factor. Multiply C Units -first column- by CF to obtain SI Units -2nd column- Normal production of uric acid is considered to be 600 mg per day in men with normal renal function on a purine-free diet.4 Overproduction of uric acid may occur because of an abnormality in the. To avoid gout and other medical problems, uric acid levels should be at 6.0 mg/dL or below. A person with a level above 6.8 mg/dL is considered to have hyperuricemia. Most experts agree that lowering a person's uric acid level can prevent the painful consequences of hyperuricemia—particularly gout
Purine compounds, whether produced in the body or from eating high-purine foods, can raise uric acid levels. Excess uric acid can produce uric acid crystals, which then build up in soft tissues and joints, causing the painful symptoms of gout. Dietary management focuses on reducing the amount of uric acid in the system and attaining and. In a phase 3 trial, ELITEK given prophylactically (prior to anticancer therapy) maintained normal uric acid levels (≤7.5 mg/dL) in significantly more patients (87%, n=92) vs allopurinol (66%, n=91) between 3 and 7 days after initiation of antihyperuricemic treatment (P=0.001) (primary endpoint). Normally, uric acid passes through the kidneys and is excreted in urine. However, when the kidneys cannot process all of the uric acid, hyperuricemia, or elevated uric acid in the blood, may develop. This can lead to development of uric acid crystals in joints and tissues causing a type of arthritis known as gout. Gout or gouty arthritis.
. Since some purines are taken in through the diet, a low uric acid diet is also a low-purine diet. With that being said, here are the best foods that will help lower uric acid levels in your blood: 1. Cherries: Cherries are among the top foods that lower uric acid levels Managing uric acid levels is an important topic for individuals who have risk factors for gout because high uric acid levels increase the likelihood of developing gout. Here, we look at the relationship between the purines in your diet, uric acid, and gout The goal of treatment is to lower uric acid levels to a level that prevents gout attacks. Your uric acid level can be checked with a blood test. For most people with gout, the target uric acid level (serum urate) you are aiming to achieve with treatment is: Less than 0.36 millimoles per litre (<0.36mmol/L): For some people with more severe gout. Purines are broken down by the body and changed to uric acid. The kidneys normally filter the uric acid, and it leaves the body through the urine. However, people with gout sometimes have a buildup of uric acid in the blood. This buildup of uric acid can cause swelling and pain (a gout attack) They have uric acid levels that are twice as much with seafood and meats. These beverages will increase the uric acid production in the body and in turn, make the body have a hard time removing excess uric acid. Alcoholic beverages are not that harmful in comparison to beer, but still have the capability of raising uric acid levels. 5
This test measures uric acid levels in blood or urine. Uric acid is made during the normal breakdown of cells and in the digestion of certain foods. Most uric acid is released in your urine. High levels of uric acid can indicate gout, kidney disease, and other health problems. Learn more The blood test will find out how much of a chemical called uric acid there is in your blood. Having too much uric acid in your blood can lead to crystals forming around your joints, which causes pain. Treatment to reduce pain and swelling. Attacks of gout are usually treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory like ibuprofen #UricAcid Normal Reference Range in Males is 3.5 to 7 mg/dL & in Females is 2.5 to 5.5 mg/dL . Uric cid normal range , metabolism and Interpretation of incr.. Effect on Uric Acid Stones. Uric acid in stones has a different meaning than we attach to calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate, or even cystine. This crystal can be prevented by raising urine pH within the common physiological range between 4.5 and 6. This means that simple alkali treatment should and will prevent such crystals in stones About Uric Acid Disease and Tomatoes Uric acid itself is a compound derived purine derived from protein. Basically uric acid can work like antioxidants that help prevent damage to the lining of the blood vessels in the body. However, if uric acid levels in high blood then a person can be exposed to gout or uric acid
Elevated levels of uric acid are associated with gout, an excruciating form of arthritis.. More recent evidence demonstrates powerful correlations between high uric acid levels and some of the most deadly conditions of our time, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney failure, and cardiovascular disorders. 1-5 In 2016-2017, a group of studies appeared linking uric acid elevations to. The body will create uric acid when processing chemical compounds called purines that occur naturally in our body and can be found in many various kinds of food. Although most uric acid can dissolve in our blood and is also excreted in urine, uric acid with excessive levels can cause many health problems, especially gout URIC ACID is a metabolic end product following the digestion of purines found in most foods. As uric acid crystallizes in the joints, it procures needle-like formations that begin tearing into the synovial fluid sacks and cartilage. Subsequently, the body storms this assault with white blood cells Low Prices on Uric Acid
In this way, the normal uric acid value should be maintained between: Women: 2,4 to 5.7 mg/dl; Men: 3,4 to 7,0 mg/dl; To check what our uric acid level in the blood an analysis must be carried out, this can be separately or in a general request for the biochemical analysis of blood. The results from the laboratory will show the quantity or. Uric acid is an insoluble catabolite produced by adenine and guanine metabolism. Accumulation of uric acid leads to gout, hyperuricemia, arthritis and renal failure. Elevated uric acid levels contributes to hypertension and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease Lamotrigine None 7d Uric Acid None 5d HSV PCR Lav EDTA 3d Lidocaine None 5d Valproic acid None 7d HHV6 PCR Lav EDTA 3d Methanol GC None 7d Vancomycin None 8hrs HHV8 PCR Lav EDTA 3d Mixed Alcohols None 7d Vitamin B12 SST 2d HBV, HCV, HIV by PCR Lav EDTA 6d Pentobarbital None 7d Phenytoin free & total None 7d Progesterone None 2 Uric acid concentration can be measured in serum, plasma, urine and in exhaled breath condensate. Low levels of uric acid are less commonly seen than high levels and are less of a health concern. When the level of uric acid is higher than 6.8 mg/dL, monosodium urate (MSU) crystals of uric acid are formed
high serum uric acid level, which is currently defined as a value of at least 6.8 mg per dL (405 µmol per L).4,5 Pathophysiology and Risk Factors Genetic mutations may be associated wit High uric acid levels in the blood stream can lead to a common form of arthritis called gout. To prevent gout, it is essential to maintain good eating habits and have proper medication. To reduce the uric acid levels in blood, you may need to limit intake of alcohol, sugary foods and reduce purine rich foods like meat, poultry, seafood and pulses. Vegetables such as cauliflower, asparagus.
hello. uric acid can be increased in a number of conditions. before starting medications try and increase water intake , stop earing non veg, rice and decrease pulses . then get it checked after a month . of it is still high then start the medicin Garbanzo beans contain a moderately high purine level at 109 mg of uric acid per 100 g of bean. Fava Beans. Fava beans are a fresh bean, meaning it is sold fresh and still in the pod. They are tan colored and resemble a lima bean. Although they are fresh, they are sold typically in dried or canned form. Fava beans, also called broad beans or. Avoid alcohol, as it tends to interfere with uric acid excretion. Maintain a healthy body weight. If you are overweight, aim for a slow gradual weight loss of ½-1 kg (1-2 lbs) per week. Rapid weight loss from fasting or severely calorie-restricted diets is not recommended as this can raise uric acid levels and aggravate gout By eating celery you'll be able to normalize the levels of uric acid in your blood and your body will manage them much better. You can eat it both raw and cooked. #6. Chicken. This is a great food for those people who are losing weight. However, it can be also helpful for those who have problems with excess uric acid in the body
S. Ananth Karumanchi, in Textbook of Nephro-Endocrinology (Second Edition), 2018 2.2.3 Uric Acid. A serum uric acid level greater than 5.5 mg/dL is a strong indicator of preeclampsia.The elevation of uric acid is attributed chiefly to decreased renal clearance and often precedes the onset of proteinuria and fall in GFR. 51 In humans given infusions of vasoconstrictors, similar declines in uric. Fructose is known to induce uric acid production by increasing ATP degradation to AMP, a uric acid precursor (85, 93, 94) and thus, within minutes after fructose infusion, serum uric acid levels rise (94). Furthermore, de novo purine synthesis is accelerated, further potentiating uric acid production A diet chart for uric acid patients is a must as it helps the individual choose recipes and meals that will not cause a flare-up. There are certain enzymes in our body that support the creation of uric acid in the blood and this causes an increase in blood uric acid levels. So how can green tea reduce uric acid levels? Green tea contains a. Gout and Uric Acid Tracker •alk with your healthcare professional about T how to keep uric acid at the recommended level of 6.0 mg/dL or less. You may need long-term treatment. • When you start using medication to lower uric acid in your blood, the crystals that have formed in your body will break down. Thi Kidneys remove uric acid from the blood and eliminate it in the urine. If your diet contains too many foods with a high or moderately high purine quantities, your uric acid level may rise enough to cause kidney stones or gout. Gout is a form of arthritis (occasionally called gouty arthritis) that can be extremely painful and is the result of an.
When levels of uric acid build up, it can cause crystals of uric acid to be formed, which deposit in joints and cause irritation, inflammation and swelling. This is known as a gout attack, which can be very painful. There are several reasons why the blood may contain high levels of uric acid The mean serum uric acid level at the initial presentation of gestational hypertension was significantly higher comparing patients who later progressed to preeclampsia to those who did not (5.06 vs. 4.59 mg/dl, P < 0.01). Lower gestational age and higher serum uric acid level at the initial presentation of gestational hypertension and subsequent need for antihypertensive drug treatment for. When the uric acid levels are, too high drugs are prescribed to block the ability of the body to absorb uric acid or to excrete the excessively produced uric acid. Diet for High Uric Acid Levels. The levels of uric acid in the body can increase due to eating foods rich in purines in excess
Recently, learning how to control uric acid levels has become one of the most common health concerns for lots of people living all over the world. In this article, top 20 natural treatments for reducing uric acid levels will be fully provided for the sake of aiding you in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Overview. Basically, uric acid is known as a chemical that is created when the body breaks. Q: My 58 years old husband has high homocystine levels and the uric acid is 6.9 and blood pressure is 130/90 mmHg. He takes Tozzar 50 and Metilda plus. Please suggest which fruits and vegetables he should avoid and which oil is safe for him?. A:Purines are organic compounds, which create uric acid [photo gallery] on breakdown in the body. While your body needs uric acid for blood vessel health. Prognostic impacts of serum uric acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure: insights from the CHART‐2 study Takahide Fujihashi Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1‐1 Seiryo‐machi, Aoba‐ku, Sendai, 980‐8574 Japa
High uric acid levels signal gout, kidney problems, and other health issues. For example, a meat-heavy diet-high in purines-increases uric acid levels and causes flare-ups in people with gout . On the other hand, people with low uric acid levels due to Wilson's disease should follow a special low-copper diet Causes of High Uric Acid Levels. The primary causes of high uric acid levels are increased production of uric acid and inability of the kidney in eliminating the uric acid from the body. A number of secondary factors may also result in high levels of uric acid, like: Diuretics, sometimes called water pills, rid the body of salt and wate Uric acid stones form when the levels of uric acid in the urine is too high, and/or the urine is too acidic (pH level below 5.5) on a regular basis. High acidity in urine is linked to the following causes: Inherited problems in how the body processes uric acid or protein in the diet can increase the acid in urine. This can be seen in conditions. Gout develops when uric acid builds up in your body. Excess levels of uric acid, or hyperuricemia, appear to be the main cause of gout, says Sophia Kamveris, MS, RD, LDN, a Boston-based nutritionist and author of the 28-Day Gout Diet Plan. Typically uric acid dissolves in your blood, your kidneys filter it out and then flush it from the.
A patient with gout may have a normal uric acid level at the time of presentation. Persistent elevation of serum uric acid is associated with renal complications. Excess uric acid is deposited in the synovium causing arthritis. The best way to diagnose gout is to identify uric acid crystals in synovial fluid First, keep in mind that there are a number of other foods that aren't recommended for those who often have high uric acid levels.These products are high in purines, a substance whose decomposition generates uric acid in the blood.. When we talk about purines, we refer to a component fund in many foods that we have in our diet and that turn into uric acid once they are decomposed Being overweight is harmful in two ways - it ups your level of uric acid and it slows your excretion of uric acid. It is vitally important to begin a healthful diet (see a dietician or nutritionist if you need to) and to get on a regular, moderate exercise plan (this can be created with the help of a personal trainer)
Long-term treatment is aimed at lowering the level of uric acid in the blood so that crystals do not form. Colchicine is often used at low doses for a period of time while drugs that lower uric acid levels are started. Allopurinol is one of the most commonly used long-term drugs. It prevents the formation of uric acid. However i Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. From there, it passes out in urine. If your body produces too much uric acid or does not remove enough of it, you can get sick. A high level of uric acid in the blood is called hyperuricemia. This test checks to see how much uric acid you have in your blood Gout is a condition in which uric acid crystals form in and around the peripheral joints of the body due to elevated levels of monosodium urate in the blood. As such, if you are a sufferer of gout, it is important to take care to avoid foods and medications that can elevate blood uric acid levels Recorded results from author's own blood test reports over time. Image — Author. As you can see from the chart above, my uric acid levels were continuously increasing hitting a peak of 8.5
How uric acid crystals develop Uric acid is produced by the breakdown of purines in the body. It is normally removed in the urine by the kidneys. Sometimes the levels of uric acid build up. If levels of uric acid become too concentrated, it forms solid crystals causing pain in the affected joints. High levels of uric acid may also increase the. As mentioned in the introduction, drinking too little water thickens up your blood and thus hampers the excretion of toxic wastes from your body, like uric acid. So if you have high uric acids levels, just up your water intake to 2 - 3 liters a day, and you will start noticing a distinct difference in a few days time
The uric acid test is requested when a doctor suspects high levels of uric acid in blood. Most patients with raised levels of uric acid have no symptoms. Some patients with high levels of uric acid have a disease called gout , which causes joint pain and arthritis, most often in their toes but in other joints as well A high level of uric acid in the blood is the main factor that increases your risk of developing gout. However, it's still uncertain why some people with a high level of uric acid in the blood develop gout, while others with an equally high level don't. Other factors that may increase your risk of developing gout are outlined below. Medical.
Laboratory Specimen Tube Type Collection Chart Draw in the order shown on the chart from left to right order , Label AT THE BEDSIDE, Timely DELIVERY to the LAB Mix all tubes gently 5-10 times by inverting immediately after collection. Urea, Uric Acid. Diet Chart For Uric Acid Levels And Control High Uric Acid In a Day With Natural Foods.this video tells you diet plan for uric acid levels and you can follow.. Raised Uric Acid Level Causes Gout: A Case of Mistaken Identity?! Dr Deepak S Hiwale Historical PerspectiveBelieve it or not, gout - previously called 'the disease of the kings' or arthritis of the rich as. These medicines work by lowering uric acid levels in the blood. The most commonly used is allopurinol. This helps to lower uric acid levels by reducing the body's production of uric acid. You can also reduce your chance of having further attacks of gout by adopting some sensible lifestyle changes, such as It directly prevents the increase of uric acid levels by inhibiting the enzyme xanthine oxidase (oxidoreductase) or xanthine dehydrogenase that processes the final step for producing uric acid (5). Unfortunately, this medication and other chemicals used for this condition can cause serious side effects like stomach pain, bleeding, and jaundice (6)